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Understanding of diesel generators

Understanding of diesel generators

    Diesel generator is a kind of small power generation equipment, which refers to the power machinery that uses diesel as fuel, and uses diesel engine as prime mover to drive generator to generate electricity. That is, diesel engine drives the generator to operate and converts the energy of diesel into electrical energy. The complete set is generally composed of diesel engine, alternator, control box, fuel tank, battery for starting and control, protection device, emergency cabinet and other components. The whole unit can be fixed on the foundation and used for positioning, or it can be installed on a trailer for Mobile use. Diesel generator sets are non-continuous operation power generation equipment. If they operate continuously for more than 12 hours, their output power will be about 90% lower than the rated power. Although diesel generator sets have low power, they are widely used in mines, railways, field construction sites, road traffic maintenance, and factories, enterprises, hospitals and other departments due to their small size, flexibility, light weight, complete supporting facilities, and easy operation and maintenance. , As a backup power supply or temporary power supply.

    Small diesel generator sets are generally diesel generator sets below 30 kilowatts. The engine parts of domestic small diesel generator sets are generally selected from the diesel engine factory in Changzhou, the diesel engine factory in Weifang and other domestic famous brand diesel engines. This model is suitable for schools and hospitals. , Offices and other places, the product is small and exquisite, so that it is easy to transport, so it has won unanimous praise from users.

    Diesel generator sets can be divided into fixed and mobile (trailer-type) units according to the structure; according to the operation mode, they can be divided into single unit and parallel operation units; according to the control mode, they can be divided into ordinary manual units, motorized units, and intelligent communication remote control units. ; According to technical indicators, it can be divided into type I power station, type II power station, and type III power station; according to the capacity, it can be divided into various power units from 1KW to 150KW.

    my country’s diesel generator set market has developed rapidly in recent years. From 2003 to 2005, due to the impact of power shortage, my country’s diesel generator set market developed rapidly. Due to power shortages caused by power shortages, some factories and enterprises have become a necessary task for backup power supply. Sales of diesel generator sets have risen rapidly during this period, causing manufacturers’ output to fall short of demand. Since 2006, although the prices of refined oil products have risen in domestic and foreign markets, the diesel generator set market does not seem to have been affected by high oil prices and still has high demand. As a result, from 2004 to the present, there have been 73 international biddings for diesel generator set equipment by Chinese enterprises, including 29 in 2004, 27 in 2005, and 17 bidding information released in the first 5 months of 2006. The demand is in the bidding and procurement of many power equipment. Second to none. It can be seen that the market demand for diesel generator sets is still very large, and high oil prices have not had much impact on them. The hot sales of diesel generators in the past two years have made the market for diesel generator sets remain hot. There will still be a lot of room for development in the market in the next few years, especially in the economically developed regions of my country, such as the Pearl River Delta. The stocks generate heat by themselves, and this also allows the former ordinary generator sets to continue the heat after the electricity shortage. At the same time, East China is the most active area of ​​China’s economy. For emergency needs, some cities have encouraged the use of diesel generators. At present, the hot sales momentum will continue for a long time. Although my country’s hydropower stations or rural small and medium-sized hydropower stations are currently under continuous construction, and the past two years are the peak period, it will take half a year, one year, or even a year from project approval to approval to start of construction. For a longer period of time, it will take 2-3 years or even a period of time to complete the construction of the power station. Therefore, it has little effect on alleviating my country’s current short-term power, especially in East China and South China. Therefore, the strong demand for diesel generator sets will not drop significantly in the next two years. Moreover, some commercial shops, government agencies, banks, etc. have purchased their own diesel generator sets to cope with the power shortage. 

    The foreign markets of diesel generators are mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia, Africa, South America, and the Middle East. The world’s first diesel generator was born in Augsburg, Germany in 1897 and was invented by Rudolf Diesel, the founder of MAN. The English name of the current diesel engine is the name of the founder Diesel. MAN is the most professional diesel engine manufacturing company in the world today, with a single engine capacity of up to 15000KW, and is the main power supplier for the ocean shipping industry. China’s large diesel generator power plants also rely on MAN. At present, the world’s earliest diesel engine is stored in the exhibition hall of the German National Museum.

The working principle of the diesel generator: In the cylinder of the diesel engine, the clean air filtered by the air filter is fully mixed with the high-pressure atomized diesel sprayed from the fuel injector. Under the upward extrusion of the piston, the volume is reduced and the temperature rises rapidly. High, reaching the ignition point of diesel. The diesel is ignited, the mixed gas burns violently, and its volume expands rapidly, pushing the piston down, which is called ‘work’. Each cylinder performs work in a certain order, and the thrust acting on the piston becomes the force that pushes the crankshaft to rotate through the connecting rod, thereby driving the crankshaft to rotate. By installing the brushless synchronous alternator coaxially with the crankshaft of the diesel engine, the rotation of the diesel engine can be used to drive the rotor of the generator. Using the principle of’electromagnetic induction’, the generator will output induced electromotive force, and current can be generated through the closed load circuit. . Here only describes the most basic working principle of the generator set. To obtain usable and stable power output, a series of diesel engine and generator control, protection devices and circuits are also needed.

    Before starting the diesel generator set, you should check to see if the generator set is fully prepared. Start the diesel generator when all the switches and conditions of the set are feasible, but please note that it is prohibited to start when the following ten situations occur:

  1. Adding cooling water after starting the diesel engine without cooling water or adding boiling water will cause the hot cylinder liner, cylinder head and other important parts to burst or deform due to sudden cold; suddenly add 100℃ boiling water to the cold engine body , The cylinder head and body will also be cracked, and should be added when the water temperature drops to 60~70℃.
  2. Diesel engines that do not supply oil according to regulations should not put the pressure reducing handle in the “working” position before supplying oil, but should put the throttle handle in the oil supply position before starting. The harm of not operating in accordance with the regulations is: waste of fuel; excess diesel will wash the cylinder wall, worsening the lubrication between the piston, piston ring and cylinder liner and aggravate wear; residual oil flowing into the oil pan will dilute the oil and reduce the lubrication effect; Incomplete combustion of too much diesel in the cylinder will result in carbon deposits.
  3. Pull the car to start the diesel engine. Pull the car to start when the oil is viscous in the cold car, which will aggravate the wear between the moving parts and reduce the service life of the locomotive.
  4. Don’t change lubricating oil and fuel oil regularly. In cold weather, if lubricating oil and fuel with low viscosity are not changed in time, the diesel engine will be difficult to start.
  5. Bake the oil pan with an open flame and start a fire at the intake pipe. In order to prevent fires, use a slow fire and coal fire to bake the oil pan of the diesel engine at a certain distance, and at the same time slowly shake the oil shaft to heat the engine oil evenly. , So that all parts are lubricated. If the ignition is started at the intake pipe of the diesel engine, the ashes and hard debris produced by the combustion of the material will be sucked into the cylinder, causing the intake and exhaust valves to be not closed tightly and accelerating the wear of the cylinder.
  6. The heating elements of the glow plug, flame preheater glow plug and flame preheater are all electric heating wires, which consume a lot of electricity and heat. Long-term use can damage the battery due to rapid discharge. The heating wire can also be burned out. Therefore, the continuous use time of the glow plug should not exceed 1 minute each time, and the continuous use time of the flame preheater should be controlled within 20 seconds each time.
  7. Add engine oil directly to the cylinder. Although it can play the role of sealing, pressurizing and increasing temperature, which is convenient for diesel engine cold start, the engine oil cannot be completely burned, and it is easy to produce carbon deposits, which will weaken the elasticity of the piston ring. The sealing performance is reduced; in addition, it will accelerate the wear of the cylinder liner, resulting in a decrease in the power of the diesel engine, making it more difficult to start, so it is not possible to directly add oil to the cylinder.
  8. Pour gasoline directly into the intake pipe. The ignition point of gasoline is lower than that of diesel, and it burns earlier than diesel. Therefore, if gasoline is directly poured into the intake pipe, the engine will work rough and produce strong cylinder knocking. In severe cases, the engine can reverse.
  9. Long-term continuous start. The engine on the diesel engine works under the condition of low voltage and high current. Long-term use will damage the battery. Its continuous working time shall not exceed 5 seconds; if it fails to start once, it should be restarted after 15 seconds.
  10. Start running at high speed. When the diesel engine is started, the temperature of the lubricating oil is low, and the fluidity is poor. It runs at high speed immediately, which may cause rapid wear of all moving parts due to lack of lubrication. In severe cases, burning of bushes and axles may occur.

The main power of diesel generator sets is also called continuous power or long-travel power. In China, the main power is generally used to identify diesel generator sets, while in the world, standby power is also called maximum power. To identify diesel generator sets, irresponsible manufacturers often use the maximum power as continuous power to introduce and sell the sets, causing many users to misunderstand these two concepts.

Therefore, consumers need to be reminded that most internationally, standby power is used, which is different from domestic power. Therefore, irresponsible manufacturers often exchange the power of the two to introduce and sell units and deceive them. Consumers must be cautious when buying diesel generator sets.

The above is ITCPower’s basic knowledge of diesel generator sets. Users can choose diesel generator sets according to their own needs and suitable environment. Different classifications of diesel generator sets are also classified into different functions, so they are purchasing Time must be carefully analyzed.